Batteries for electric vehicles

In the interest of an efficient overall system, ARADEX provides its customers with various battery technologies that are selected according to their application-specific suitability. As standard, the batteries provide an energy of 50 kWh, but they can be adapted to the specific application.

The majority of the battery technologies available from ARADEX use lithium-ion technology, which is not based on chemical reactions, but on the storage of ions at different potentials. Li-ion batteries are optimized for maximum power during discharging and charging, as well as for high efficiency. They are thus perfectly adapted to the requirements for use in electric vehicles.

 The following battery technologies are available:

  • Li-FePO: lithium iron phosphate
  • LTO: lithium titanate oxides
  • Li-NMC: lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides

Note: The sale of batteries via ARADEX requires a drive train design with VECTOPOWER or VECTOMOTOR components.

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Overview of battery types

massdischarge currentsload currentstemperature rangecycles
Li-FePo11-12 kg/kWhmax. 2C1C

0 - 50°C loading
-25 - 60°C discharge

3-4K (80%)

6-8K (60%)

LTO50-55-kg/kWh5-8C4-5C-20 - 25°C loading
-30 - 60°C discharge

15K (80%)

Li-NCM10 kg/kWhmax. 4C2C-10 - 50°C loading
-2 - 50°C discharge

2-3K (80%)

Die Batterie-Technologien im Überblick

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO)

Lithium-iron-phosphate batteries are a further development of lithium-ion technology with a cell voltage of 3.2 and 3.3 V. The negative electrode is made of lithium iron phosphate instead of lithium cobalt oxide. The positive electrode is made of graphite or else made of hard plastic with lithium. The basic advantages over lithium-ion batteries are a prolonged service life as well as improved temperature stability.

Characteristics of lithium-iron-phosphate batteries:

  • Proven technology
  • Nominal cell voltage 3.2 V
  • At 80% capacity utilization, around 3000 - 4000 load cycles
  • Gross around 12 kg/kWh, at 80% utilization 15 kg/kWh
  • Charge currents during discharging: 2C (medium loadable)
  • Charge currents during charging: 1C
  • Temperature range during discharging: -25 to +60 °C
  • Temperature range during charging: 0 to +50 °C; with derating at the limits
  • Costs: Life-cycle costs inexpensive to medium, investment medium

Application examples of lithium-iron-phosphate batteries:

  • Robust traction battery, if the required C rates (charge currents) are not too high

Advantages of lithium-iron-phosphate batteries:

  • The power density of 3000 W/kg is higher than that of Li-ion batteries, resulting in a higher loading capacity
  • Electrical efficiency for total cycle > 91%
  • High level of safety: Solid electrolyte and cell chemistry prevent thermal penetration (fire or explosion)
  • High impulse load up to 40 °C
  • Comparatively insensitive to storage temperature
  • Low self-discharge: 3-5%/month
  • Long service life and low operating costs due to high cycle durability
  • Cobalt-free, thereby improving environmental compatibility
  • Flat voltage profile during charging and discharging

Disadvantages of lithium-iron-phosphate batteries:

  • Safety circuits are necessary to ensure safe operation
  • Flat voltage curve makes determination of the charge state more difficult

Lithium-titanate batteries

Lithium-titanate batteries are a variation of lithium-ion batteries in which the negative electrode (originally made of graphite) is replaced by one made of lithium-titanate spinel. Lithium-titanate batteries are characterized in particular by an increased chemical bond of the lithium in the titanate, which prevents an insulating surface layer from forming on the sintered electrode. This effectively counteracts the aging process.

Characteristics of lithium-titanate-oxide batteries:

  • Proven technology
  • Nominal cell voltage 2.4 V
  • At 90% capacity utilization around 8000 charging cycles
  • Gross around 50 kg/kWh, at 90% utilization 55 kg/kWh
  • Thermal penetration is not possible, since titanate cannot react with oxides from negative electrodes
  • Charge currents during discharging: 10C (highly loadable)
  • Charge currents during charging: 5C
  • Temperature range during discharging: -30 to +60 °C
  • Temperature range during charging: -20 to +55 °C; with derating at the limits
  • Costs: Life-cycle costs medium, investment high
  • Traction battery with very high C rates

Application examples of lithium-titanate-oxide batteries:

  • For hybrid vehicles

Advantages of lithium-titanate-oxide batteries:

  • Very long life (up to 20,000 charging and discharging cycles possible)
  • Maximum efficiency of up to 99%
  • Highest intrinsic safety and reliability among all lithium technologies
  • High depth of discharge without impairing the cycle life (up to 100% DoD)
  • High current carrying capacity during charging and discharging
  • Operational readiness at extreme temperatures
  • High robustness
  • High voltage stability compared to charge state

Disadvantages of lithium-titanate-oxide batteries:

  • Very low voltage (<2 V), charging end voltage approx. 2.4 V
  • Low energy density
  • High manufacturing costs

Lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide batteries

Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides, also known as NMCs, are mixed oxides of lithium, nickel, manganese, and cobalt. NCM batteries have a layer structure and are among the most important storage materials for lithium ions in lithium-ion batteries. The cell voltage is 3.6 - 3.7 V.

Characteristics of lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide batteries:

  • New technology with higher energy density
  • Nominal cell voltage 3.6 V
  • At 80% capacity utilization over 2000-3000 load cycles
  • Gross around 10 kg/kWh, at 80% utilization 12 kg/kWh
  • Charge currents during discharging: 4C (medium loadable)
  • Charge currents during charging: 2C
  • Temperature range during discharging: -25 to +50 °C
  • Temperature range during loading: -10 to +50 °C; with derating at the limits
  • Costs: Life-cycle costs: inexpensive to medium, investment medium

Application examples for lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide batteries:

  • Traction battery with higher C rates and higher performance density
  • Fire protection more demanding
  • High distribution in cars

Advantages of lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide batteries:

  • More cost-effective than lithium-cobalt-oxide technology
  • The numerous components yield many combinations, allowing application-optimized batteries to be produced
  • High energy density (490 - 580 Wh/l)
  • Long life (500 - 1000 cycles)
  • Shorter life

Disadvantages of lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide batteries:

  • Comparably poorer charging performance